Climate justice and → Feminismus
Justice is not divisible. Therefore, a fair distribution of energy resources and the burden of environmentally harmful emissions can only work if all sectors of a just world are involved. To achieve this, all people need the same opportunities for development, the same rights, the same recognition and the same material and financial conditions.
The consequences of global warming hit social groups that are already marginalised in other social and economic areas particularly hard. Women make up the largest of the affected groups - half of humanity - and they are disadvantaged, oppressed and exploited worldwide - for no other reason than that they are women. This discrimination is more or less pronounced, depending on origin, place of living and social status, but it is everywhere and continuously present.
The exploitation of the earth, of women and other disadvantaged people results from the same abusive exercise of power, the same theoretical orientation of domination, the same separation from the living and the same inability to feel and give empathy, care and love.
The role of women - like that of men - is socially, culturally and capitalistically shaped and constructed. So men can be feminist and women can be rich, powerful and exploitative (→ Kapitalismus). Mostly, however, the people in the most important decision-making positions are male and pursue a patriarchally underpinned regime of power that is primarily designed for self-interest and the preservation of oppressive structures. In doing so, the spoiling of nature and the majority of people is accepted or even deliberately pursued.
Among the many forms of → Feminismus is "feminism for the 99%“
" rel="">#sdfootnote1sym1 from the manifesto of Cinzia Arruza, Tichi Bhattacharya and Nancy Fracer is an important reference point for a link to the effects of man-made climate change.
Almost no one - with the partial exception of one percent - escapes the consequences of political upheaval, economic precariousness and social-reproductive depletion. Whereby climate change naturally threatens to wipe out all life on the planet. But there is also a growing realisation that these catastrophic developments are so closely linked that none can be reversed without taking the others into account."
An equally important approach within → Feminismus is, for example, eco-feminism. Here it is assumed that patriarchal patterns of behaviour and power structures lead to the exploitation of women and other minorities, as well as to the unrestrained consumption of natural resources and unlimited accumulation of waste.
In addition to a comprehensive literature overview, this brochure „Gendergerechtigkeit als Beitrag zu einer erfolgreichen Klimapolitik: Forschungsreview, Analyse internationaler Vereinbarungen, Portfolioanalyse“
" rel="">#sdfootnote3sym3 offers an overview of other important feminist approaches.
„Climate justice means that all people can lead a good life and all have the same opportunities to participate in society. To achieve this we must not only→ Kapitalismusbut also patriarchal laws, norms and role clichés.“''
The establishment of a feminist climate and environmental protection policy from below.
These include for example:
- The support of women, especially from the → globalen Süden, indigenous communities, People of Color, and other disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, such as children, the elderly and the sick, who are particularly affected by current and, in the future, increasingly frequent consequences of the climate crisis.
- The establishment of global, national and regional support funds for women in order to be able to protect themselves both theoretically and practically against climate damage, and to ensure that they can develop sustainable strategies → Resilienz
- Equitable participation of women in international, national and regional political, economic and cultural decision-making bodies.
- Support and promotion of self-determined regional subsistence economies - in which women often play a leading role - within the framework of solidary, caring and communitised economic forms and cycles that can exist in parallel and as independently as possible from the neo-liberal world market.
- Educational opportunities that empower women to stand up for their rights and take their rightful place at all levels.
These are just a few examples of the areas in which women must be given more rights, direct influence and financial resources. An overview of other areas in which gender justice must be achieved can be found in the article: „Geschlechtergerechtigkeit und Klimapolitik“, in dem sieben Gender-Dimensionen herausgearbeitet werden, wie zum Beispiel Versorgungsökonomie/Sorgearbeit, Institutionalisierter Androzentrismus und Definitions- und Gestaltungsmacht auf Akteursebene. “''
In international climate policy it is increasingly recognised that climate change and gender justice are closely related. In contrast to countries in the global southdes → Globalen Südens the importance of gender relations for effective climate policy in industrialized countries has only recently begun to receive more attention.
A large number of studies also show the relevance of gender relations for climate change and climate policy in countries of the Global North, but structural conditions and power relations are only rarely addressed. Along the seven gender dimensions, preconditions of social and economic transformation can be considered in a differentiated way.
Transformation differenziert betrachten… . „ The special value of these gender dimensions lies in the fact that they offer insights for possible structural changes and point in the direction of social transformation“'' 5
In general, it is about the equitable inclusion of women both in institutional decision-making structures in all gender-relevant areas, „Verursachung von → Treibhausgasemissionen, the vulnerability to and adaptation to the impacts of climate change, access to climate-relevant resources such as energy and transport services, preferences, options and capacities to avoid emissions at the actor level and, finally, the impact of political interventions for climate protection and adaptation to the impacts of climate change . … Definitions- und Gestaltungsmacht auf Akteursebene: Teilhabe an und Berücksichtigung von Genderexpertise bei Entscheidungen in Wissenschaft, Technik und Politik.“
As disappointing as the UN climate summits have been, at least some initial steps have been taken in recent years in the area of gender and climate justice.
„"After almost two weeks of negotiations at COP 25 climate negotiations in Madrid, Spain, governments have adopted a new five-year gender action plan (GAP). "This is thanks to the years of tireless negotiating skills of internationally organised women and can be seen as a success in putting gender justice on the climate political agenda.
If, for example, women are supported in practising self-sufficient agriculture and traditional knowledge of natural farming without chemicals is applied, this is a valuable contribution to protecting the climate and the environment.
When subsistence farming is strengthened and expanded, social communities and solidarity-based structures and modes of action are always strengthened. The benefits of direct, unbureaucratic and rapid financial and material aid in the event of climate-related damage, such as after floods or fires, are obvious.
As we become more and more aware, understand, feel and acknowledge that both the whole of humanity and the totality of nature can only be understood as a great mixture, as a comprehensive integral whole such issues will become increasingly important. There is only one holistic view and action.
Federici, Silvia: Caliban und die Hexe – Frauen, der Körper und die ursprüngliche Akkumulation, 5. Auflage 2018, Berlin/Wien
Fracer, Nancy, Honneth, Axel: Umverteilung oder Anerkennung? - Eine politisch-philosophische Kotroverse, 1. Auflage 2003, Frankfurt/Main
Arruzza, Cinzia, Bhattacharya, Tithi, Fraser, Nancy: Feminismus für die 99% - Ein Manifest, Berlin, 2019
Coccia, Emanuelle: Die Wurzeln der Welt, – Eine Philosophie der Pflanzen, 2. Auflage 2018, München
Ulrike Röhr, Gotelind Alber, Lisa Göldner, GenderCC – Women for Climate Justice e. V. Forschungskonsortium: Meike Spitzner (Projektleitung), Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie, Wuppertal, Dr. Diana Hummel, Dr. Immanuel Stieß, Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung, Frankfurt a.M., Gotelind Alber, Ulrike Röhr, GenderCC – Women for Climate Justice e. V., Berlin, Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes.
Gotelind Alber, Diana Hummel, Ulrike Röhr, Meike Spitzner, Immanuel Stieß: Geschlechtergerechtigkeit und Klimapolitik, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Ausgabe 21-23/2018, Herausgegeben von der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, https://www.bpb.de/183655/ihre-artikelauswahl-als-pdf-oder-epub?createpdf=1
1Arruzza, Cinzia, Bhattacharya, Tithi, Fraser, Nancy: Feminismus für die 99% - Ein Manifest, Berlin, 2019
2Fußnote 1, S. 85-86
3 Von Ulrike Röhr, Gotelind Alber, Lisa Göldner, GenderCC – Women for Climate Justice e. V. Forschungskonsortium: Meike Spitzner (Projektleitung), Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie, Wuppertal, Dr. Diana Hummel, Dr. Immanuel Stieß, Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung, Frankfurt a.M., Gotelind Alber, Ulrike Röhr, GenderCC – Women for Climate Justice e. V., Berlin, Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/gendergerechtigkeit-als-beitrag-zu-einer
4 Aus dem Einladungstext zu einer Veranstaltung von Ende Gelände: Bagger und Macker blockieren: Was hat Klimagerechtigkeit mit Feminismus zu tun? https://www.ende-gelaende.org/events/bagger-und-macker-blockieren-was-hat-klimagerechtigkeit-mit-feminismus-zu-tun/
5 Gotelind Alber, Diana Hummel, Ulrike Röhr, Meike Spitzner, Immanuel Stieß: Geschlechtergerechtigkeit und Klimapolitik, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Ausgabe 21-23/2018, Herausgegeben von der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, https://www.bpb.de/183655/ihre-artikelauswahl-als-pdf-oder-epub?createpdf=1
6 Siehe Fußnote 5
8 Siehe dazu: Coccia, Emanuelle: Die Wurzeln der Welt – Eine Philosophie der Pflanzen, 2. Auflage 2018, München….