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Glossary

AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY

refers to a social movement, scientific discipline, and agricultural practice. It represents agriculture that is adapted to natural conditions and cycles as well as to local needs. Traditional and local knowledge is combined with modern scientific methods.
Agricultural Policy →Biodervisity→ conventional agriculture

AGRICULTURAL POLICY

is the totality of State measures to regulate and support agriculture. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union is one of the oldest and financially most important policy areas of the EU.
→Agricultural Ecology→ Conventional agriculture

ANOMIC

is the state of missing or weak social norms, rules, and order.

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

generally refer to all ecosystems with water. These are usually rivers and lakes on the mainland, but also seas.
→ Ecosystem

AUTOSEPSIS

as a process of self-creation and maintenance of a system.
→ Ecosystem

BASE LOAD CAPACITY

refers to the ability of a power plant or types of power plants to provide electrical energy on a permanent and reliable basis.

BASIS OF ONE'S LIVELIHOOD

describes the basic (material) goods that are needed to live.
→ Unconditional Basic Income

BIODIVERSITY

is also called biological diversity. It consists of three areas that are closely linked: The diversity of species, genetic diversity within species and the diversity of →Ecological Systems, which include biotic communities, habitats such as forests and seas, and landscapes.
→ Ecosystem

BUEN VIVIR

means "good life" in spanish and is a South American concept. It is characterized by a balance between nature, reduction of social inequality, an economy based on solidarity and a pluralistic democracy with new areas of civil society participation. It is a critical response to Western development thinking of recent decades.
→ Commons → Unconditional Basic Income

CAPACITY MARKET

is a tool within the electricity market. It is based on the idea, that not the consumption of electricity but the amount of power provided is traded within the market. As a result, producers receive money regardless of whether there is less or no electricity being fed into the grid.

CAPITALISM

is an economic and social order. Typical characteristics are: private ownership of the means of production (factory buildings, machines, plants), the principle of profit maximisation and the control of the economy via the market. Economic and social coexistence is largely determined by the interests of the capital owners. In capitalism, capital ownership is the prerequisite for the control of the means of production, which includes the right to give instructions about the labour force of dependent employees. The mass of workers is predominantly without possessions and economically dependent on the relatively few owners of capital.
→ Liberalism

CARE WORK

is a generic term for activities of caring for other people. This includes household tasks such as cooking and washing clothes, looking after children, caring for the elderly, etc. In our current society, care work is primarily carried out by women.
→ Commons → Unconditional Basic Income → Feminism

CASCADE USE

or multiple-use refers to the use of raw material over several stages. In this way, particularly sustainable and efficient use, as well as a saving in the use of raw materials, is to be achieved; raw materials or products made from them are used in the economic system as long as possible.
The term has been used in strategy and position papers of German and European politics since about 2010 and mostly with explicit reference to biomass use.

CHEMICAL SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS

are generated using a high amount of energy. In → conventional agriculture, the largest part of the energy consumption is accounted for by the production of these fertilizers. About two litres of crude oil are needed to produce one kilo of nitrogen.

CO2

is the chemical formula for the molecule consisting of carbon and oxygen, carbon dioxide, also known as carbon dioxide. Along with nitrogen, oxygen and so-called noble gases, it is a natural component of the air and is one of the most significant → greenhouse gas emissions. With only 0.038 percent, CO2 accounts for only a small proportion of the air. However, in its function as a greenhouse gas, it plays an important role for our climate: CO2 absorbs part of the heat emitted from the earth into space and radiates it back to earth.
→ Emissions → Greenhouse gas emissions
→ CO2 equivalent

CO2 EQUIVALENT

or CO2e is a unit of measurement used to standardize the climate impact of the various → greenhouse gases. In order to make the effect of the various greenhouse gases comparable, the warming effect of a certain quantity of a greenhouse gas over a fixed period of time (usually 100 years) is expressed in terms of CO2.o For example, methane has a climate effect 28 times greater than CO₂, but remains in the atmosphere for less time
→ CO2 → Greenhouse gas emissions

COLONIALISM

is the policy of seizure and exploitation of foreign, mostly overseas territories, mainly by European countries between the 16th and 20th centuries Colonialism is characterised by the territorial expansion of a state's power by means of long-term military, political and/or economic control over the subjugated colony.
→ Imperialism → Global South → Racism

COMMONS

are one of the basic principles of the solidary way of life. Commons are material and social goods, services and resources which people need to live and which are produced, maintained and used collectively. This process is called „commoning“ (communities). Commons do not belong to one person as private property, but are equally available to all people.

COMMUNISM

describes the political doctrines and movements amining to create a classless and hierarchy-free society. They are based on the theories established by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Above all, Karl Marx sees the collective ownership of the means of production under socialism as the economic basis of the higher phase of a domination-free, communist society that gradually emerges from socialist society through the development of all human abilities. In the end, everything should belong to everyone.
→ Capitalism →Commons

CONSENSUS

means the unanimous opinion of persons on a particular question without any hidden or overt contradiction. Consensus means that the needs of all participants are met equally and work towards a common goal. Therefore, consensus may require a significantly higher expenditure of time, but if it is successful, all participants are significantly more satisfied.
→ Grassroot Democracy

CONSUMER

designates a person who uses goods. The verb is to consume and can be equated with passive consumption since the consumer does not participate in the production of the goods.
→ Producer

CONVENTIONAL AGRICULTURE

is the most common form of agriculture in Germany. It produces most of our food. At the same time, it has far-reaching consequences for our environment. Its aim is to produce as much food as possible at the lowest possible price- hence, agriculture must be profitable. The consequences of this agriculture are, for example, intensive livestock farming, → soil degradation or → monocultures.

CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

are fossil fuels and nuclear fuel. In contrast to renewable sources, their reserves on earth are limited. Around 80 percent of global primary energy consumption is covered by fossil fuels. These include coal, oil and natural gas. The energy contained in fossil fuels can be converted into thermal energy by combustion. This process emits sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, but also dust. In a second step, this can, in turn, be converted into electrical energy.

DECENTRAL

originates in the Latin words „de“ = from, away and „center“ = to be in the middle. In economics and politics, the term is used to describe a system in which the distribution of goods/people/etc. does not start from one place or location, but is divided up into several points.

DEPENDENCY THEORY

is an umbrella term for a group of development theories, originally established in Latin America in the mid-1960s, which are closely related in their basic assumptions. These theories emphasise the existence of hierarchical dependencies between industrialised (metropolises) and developing countries (peripheries). They consider the development opportunities of the Third World as limited by this hierarchical relationship.
→ Global South

DIASPORA

refers to the existence of religious, national, cultural or ethnic communities in a foreign country after having left their traditional homeland. Sometimes the groups are scattered over large parts of the world.

ECOSYSTEM

or ecological system is a technical term of the ecological sciences. An ecosystem consists of inanimate (abiotic) parts such as rock, climate and air and animate (biotic) components such as animals, insects and plants. Depending on the resulting living conditions, different ecosystems develop, such as a forest, a meadow, a body of water or a swamp.
→ Aquatic ecosystems

EFFICIENCY

describes the optimal ratio of input and output. In → capitalism efficiency often means that as little time, money, and resources as possible are used to produce a good. Social and ecological costs are usually left out. This often leads to pressure to be efficient, which means that time, money or resources are to be reduced to such an extent that social and ecological damage is caused.

EGALITARISM

are ideological attempts to create an equal society. Such ethical, political, economic or socio-political positions demand, for example, equality of personal property or equal opportunities for every individual in society.

ELECTROMOBILITY

or e-mobility refers to the benefits of electrically powered vehicles, such as e-scooters, electric cars or electric trains. Electromobility is regarded as a central component of a sustainable and climate-friendly transport system based on renewable energies. This is the aim of the → traffic turnaround.
→ Emissions → Efficiency

EMANCIPATION

occurs when people or communities increase their self-determination, participation and autonomy over their own lives and are able to represent their interests autonomously and self-determinedly. Accordingly, emancipation often also means liberation from dependence.
→ Basic democracy → Egalitarianism → Feminism

EMISSION

comes from the Latin ("send out, send out"), in English 'discharge' or 'emission'. In general, it refers to the emission of particles, substances, (sound) waves or radiation into the environment. Emission-free means that no pollutants are emitted into the environment.
→ CO2 → Greenhouse gas emissions → Electric mobility

ENERGY TURNAROUND

describes the political strategy of switching from non-sustainable fossil fuels and nuclear energy to sustainable energies.
→ Gross electricity consumption

EXCHANGE VALUE

refers to the ratio in which goods are traded on the market.

EXCLUSION

literally means rejection or marginalization. In the field of education the termdescribes the fact that someone is excluded from a project or an assembly, from belonging to a group or from social contexts.

EXTENSIVE

generally means "comprehensive, spreading out".Extensive livestock farming is animal production where a large area is used for a relatively small number of livestock with little use of other → means of production. It is the opposite of intensive animal husbandry.
→ Agricultural ecology → Agricultural policy

FEMINISM

is diverse and varies in the meaning. The basic concern of all feminist movements is self-determination, freedom, and equality for all people, which is to be realized in public as well as personal life. The diverse concepts offer approaches and has the potential for shaping the current society through profound social change.

FOOD SOVEREIGNTY

is the self-determined production of food. Hence, the people involved are first the → producers and afterwards also the → consumers of the goods.
→ agricultural policy → agroecology → sovereignty

FORDISM

is a form of industrial mass production established after the First World War.
→ Capitalism

GENETIC ENGINEERING

refers to processes by which the genetic material of organisms can be artificially altered. For example, the genetic material of the organism can be recombined or parts of the genetic material of another organism can be transferred.

GENOCIDE

is also referred to as mass extermination. It is defined in the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as the deliberate killing of members of a national, ethnic or religious group.

GDP

is the abbreviation for gross domestic product. It is a measure of the economic performance of an economy in a given period. It measures the total value of all goods, i.e. goods and services produced within the national borders of an economy in a given year and used for final consumption.

GLOBAL SOUTH

describes countries and places in a globally disadvantaged social, political and economic situation. The Global North, on the other hand, owns a privileged position with advantages (e.g. Europe or USA; → Privilege). The classification refers to the different experiences with → colonialism and exploitation, one as exploited and one as profiting part. The division of South and North is also meant geographically, but not exclusively. The pair of terms is an attempt to name different positions in a global context without using judgmental descriptions such as "developing", "developing countries" or "third world".
→ privilege → imperialism → colonialism

GRASSROOT DEMOCRACY

is a form of democracy (Greek "rule of the people") and pursues the goal of giving the base of a society the power to make decisions. In grassroots democracy, decisions are made directly by a group of individuals with equal rights. An important principle in many grassroots democratic associations is the → consensus.

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

Greenhouse gases are gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect and can be of both natural and anthropogenic origin. They absorb part of the long-wave heat radiation emitted by the ground, which would otherwise escape into space.
→ CO2 → Emissions

GREEN NEW DEAL

generally refers to concepts aiming to initiate the ecological turnaround of the→ industrial society. On 11 December 2019 the new Commission President Ursula von der Leyen presented the EU Green Deal. One of the goals is to be the first continent to become CO2 neutral by 2050.
→ Energy Tournaround

GROSS ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION

is the sum of total domestic electricity production (wind, hydro, solar, coal, oil, natural gas and others) plus electricity flows from abroad and minus electricity flows to abroad.

IDENTIFICATION

literally means "to equate" and describes the process of a person or a group of people feeling connected to certain characteristics, nationalities, religions etc. to such an extent that it becomes part of their personality.

IMMISSION

measures the influence of the emitted substances/sounds/waves on the environment. The focus is therefore mainly on living beings, buildings, soils and water bodies. The word "immission" comes from the Latin mountain peak "immittere", which means "to send in" or "send out". When it comes to how pollutants in the air affect us, humans, it is not the absolute quantity of the substances that is decisive. Instead, what is important is their concentration, i.e. their mass per unit volume of air. For this reason, immissions are measured in concentrations or intensities.

IMPERIALISM

refers to the efforts of states to extend their power far beyond their own national borders. This can be done by deliberately influencing weaker countries politically, economically, culturally or by other methods of making them dependent on the stronger country.
→ Global South → Dependence Theory

INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

is characterized by a high degree of automation of production methods and social structures. This means that most of the tasks in production are taken over by machines, robots or similar. The respective economic order is not taken into account in this definition.

INVESTMENTS

is an economic term describing the use of capital (e.g. money or securities) for a specific purpose, such as the establishment of a company or a project.

LAND MORATORIUM

or construction moratoria is a contractually agreed or legally ordered delay of the use of the land or the construction project. The word moratorium comes from the Latin "morari", which means "to delay, postpone". A moratorium is simply the agreement to refrain from doing something that was decided before.

LAND SEALING

or soil sealing refers to the covering of the natural soil by human structures. We speak of land sealing because precipitation can no longer penetrate the soil from above and so many of the processes that normally take place there are stopped.

LIBERALISM

is a basic position of political philosophy as well as a historical and current movement striving for a free political, economic and social order. Liberalism emerged from the English revolutions of the 17th century. In many countries, nation states and democratic systems rose from liberal citizens' movements for the first time. The guiding principle of liberalism is the freedom of the individual, primarily against state power of government. It is directed against belief in the state, collectivism, arbitrariness and the abuse of power or domination.
→ Capitalism

LOGIC OF GROWTH

is a fundamental assumption of → liberalism and → capitalism. It is currently regarded as one of the most important economic policy goals, associated with increasing profits and prosperity. This logic of growth results in a compulsion to grow for many state and corporate actors. The principle is criticised from many sides, since continuous economic growth leads to an increasing consumption of resources and the pressure to innovate.

MEANS OF PRODUCTION

designate, in general terms, the material requirements and conditions of the manufacturing of goods. This ranges from buildings and traffic and usable areas to technical equipment and working methods.

MONOCULTURES

are defined as agricultural, horticultural or forestry land on which only one type of crop is grown in succession over several years.
→ Conventional Agriculture

NEOLIBERALISM

refers to a free, market-based economic order with the corresponding design features such as private ownership of the means of production, free price formation, freedom of competition and freedom of trade. Neoliberalist theories doenot completely reject state intervention in the economy, but aim to keep it to a minimum.
→ Liberalism → Capitalism

NET- ZERO EMISSIONS

is an idea that suggests that the world can continue to produce emissions as long as there is a way to "offset" them. Thus, instead of immediately starting to radically reduce emissions, we can continue to emit enormous amounts of CO2 - and even build new coal-fired power plants - and meanwhile claim to be protecting the climate by "supporting" the development of CSS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) technology. All in all, the idea of net-zero emissions simplifies the problem of climate change immensely and reduces it to the need to save CO2, but disregards social issues and topics like biodiversity.

OPEC

stands for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and is an international organization founded in 1960 and based in Vienna.

PALUDICULTURES

comes from "palus" - lat. "swamp, morass" and is the agricultural and forestry use of wet raised and lowland swamps.
→ Agricultural Ecology

PERMACULTURE
consists of the terms permanent (sustainable) and (agri)culture. It is viable concept for agriculture and horticulture based on closely observing and imitating natural ecosystems and cycles in nature. In Europe, permaculture is practiced in private home gardens as well as on medium-sized farms.

PESTICIDES

are substances that eliminate unwanted organisms in agriculture. Depending on whether they are used against weeds, insects or fungi, they are also called herbicides, insecticides or fungicides. Using pesticides means to kill living organisms.

POSTCOLONIALISM

is an intellectual current that has been developing since the middle of the 20th century in confrontation with the history of → colonialism and → imperialism. The central theme is the continued influence of colonial structures on a formally decolonized present. The idea is to make it clear that colonial power relations have not been overcome yet.
→ Privilege

PRIVILEGE

is an advantage granted to an individual person or a group of persons. It can be based on gender, ancestry, political opinion, class, home, origin, appearance... Privileges can be seen as the antithesis of discrimination, where people are at a disadvantage in society because of the points listed.

PRODUCER

is a manufacturer of goods.
→ Consumer

RACISM

is a term used in different ways. It is an attitude, ideology, way of thinking or acting by which people are categorized and judged as "race" on the basis of a few external characteristics - which suggest a certain origin. The "races" thus understood are classified hierarchically. The classical concept was predominant in the epoch of European → colonialism and → imperialism until after the Second World War. This pseudo-biological ideology served to justify colonialism, slavery, the crimes of the Nazis or apartheid regimes.
→ Postcolonialism

RESILIENCE

describes the ability to deal with stress. In the business world, the term is used to characterize the resistance of a system to crises.

SECTOR COOPERATION

is generally understood as the energy-technical and energy-economic combination of electricity, heat, gas and energy sources for mobility and industrial processes. This includes technologies and processes such as heat pumps (power-to-heat), electric vehicles (power-to-mobility) and power-to-x technologies such as power-to-gas, power-to-liquid and power-to-chemicals.

SINK

are parts of →Ecosystems that people use for disposal, for example, the atmosphere, the oceans or the soil under landfills.

SOIL DEGRADATION

refers to the deterioration of soil quality up to the total loss of ecosystem services (e.g. the humus cycle through micro-organisms, worms, fungi, and insects) of the soil. In other words, the quality of the soil decreases radically until it is finally "dead" and the area can no longer be used for agriculture, nothing grows on this earth anymore.
→ ecosystem → conventional agriculture

SOVEREIGNTY

comes from the French and means something like "independence", "superiority". The sovereignty of a state consists of the fact that it can decide for itself what should happen in the state internally as well as in relation to other states. The sovereign state has the power to determine its own laws and form of government

SUFFICIENCY

describes a principle according to which tasks are performed at the smallest, local level if possible. They should only be delegated to a higher organizational level if the measures of the local units are not sufficient or if certain political objectives can be better realized at a higher level.

SUBSIDY

is a benefit from public funds to businesses or companies. Subsidies are economic policy interventions in the market, which are intended to promote certain behaviour by market participants. Examples are the production of milk, which is subsidised by the German state, as well as coal, oil and gas production
→ Agricultural policy

SUFFICIENCY

is one of the basic principles of the solidary way of life. Instead of focusing on consumption and → logic of growth, it supports a state where all people can have enough for a → Buen Vivir (Good Life) without having to or even wanting to improve it. This is done by taking a different view of ownership and using fewer resources, by sharing, recycling or renouncing

TRANSITION OF TRANSPORT

describes the process of converting transport and mobility to sustainable energy sources, gentle mobility use and networking of different forms of individual transport and local public transport.
→ Electric mobility

TRANSFORMATION

denotes a fundamental and lasting change. It is the process of change from the present state to the desired target state in the future.

TRICKLE-DOWN PRINCIPLE

refers to the belief that economic growth (→ logic of growth) and general prosperity of the rich would gradually seep through their consumption and → investment into the lower strata of society (trickle-down effect). The term trickle-down comes from a joke by US comedian Will Rogers.

UNCONDITIONAL BASIC INCOME

is a concept in which every person receives an income on an equal footing, from which a good life (→Buen Vivir) can be led and basic needs can be met. This makes it possible for people to carry out activities regardless of their remuneration.

UTILITY VALUE

is the social or individual utility of a good, may differ from individual to individual, as goods can satisfy needs to varying degrees.
→ Sufficiency

VALUE CHAIN

represents the stages of production as an ordered sequence of activities. These activities create value, consume resources and are linked together in processes. The concept was first introduced in 1985 by Michael E. Porter, an American business economist, in his book Competitive Advantage. According to Porter, it is a "collection of activities by which a product is designed, manufactured, distributed, delivered and supported".

VEGAN

refers to a diet based exclusively on plants, in which no animal products are consumed.

VEGETATION PERIOD

describes the period of the general growth of the plants within one year.

VOLATILITY

is a measure of risk and shows the strength of the fluctuation of the price of an underlying asset within a certain period of time. The higher the volatility, the more the price moves up and down and the riskier but also the more promising → investment in the underlying asset is. A distinction is made between historical and implied volatility.
→ Volatile energy sources

VOLATILE ENERGY SOURCES

do not generate energy evenly, but fluctuate. This is the case with solar or wind energy, for example, because the sun does not shine continuously and the wind does not always blow.

VULNERABLE

means as much as prone to failure.


Further Literature, Sources

 

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